Management Introduction Questions and Answers 161 to 170

Management Introduction 

Questions 161 to 170


161.
Departmentalization divides a large and complex organization into smaller and more flexible administrative units. A type of departmentalization in which similar specialists and people with common skills, knowledge and orientations are grouped together, is referred to as
(a)
Process departmentalization
(b)
Functional departmentalization
(c)
Product departmentalization
(d)
Customer departmentalization
(e)
Geographic departmentalization.
162.
Which of the following statements is incorrect with respect to ‘functional authority’?
(a)
Managing functional authority relationships is similar to managing dual-boss relationships
(b)
It should be restricted to the procedural aspects of a function
(c)
It is similar to line authority except that staff personnel with functional authority do not have a right to punish violations from the intended course of action
(d)
It should not be delegated too much down the line as such delegation may create problems
(e)
If unity of command were to be applied without exception, functional authority would be exercised only by staff managers.
163.
Every organization structure, even a poor one, can be charted. Which of the following is false with respect to Organization Chart?
(a)
It is a vital tool for providing information about organizational relationships
(b)
It provides a visual map of the chain of command
(c)
Charting an organization structure can show up the complexities and inconsistencies, which can be corrected
(d)
It shows authority relationships as well as informal and informational relationships
(e)
It helps managers and new personnel to know how and where they fit into the organization structure.
164.
Various selection devices are used to choose candidates who best meet the qualifications and have the greatest aptitude for the job. Asking a candidate for an automotive mechanic’s position to assemble and disassemble part of an engine motor would be an example of what kind of selection device?
(a)
Psychological test
(b)
Personality test
(c)
Performance test
(d)
Intelligence test
(e)
Application blank.
165.
Performance appraisal involves the formal evaluation of an individual’s job performance.  Which of the following guidelines is least likely to improve the effectiveness of the appraisal process?
(a)
Stress both performance in the position the individual holds and the success with which the individual is attaining organizational objectives
(b)
Emphasize the evaluator's impression of the individual's work habits
(c)
Ensure that the appraisal is acceptable to both the evaluator and the evaluated
(d)
Ensure that the appraisal provides a base for improving individuals' productivity within the organization by making them better equipped to produce
(e)
Determine standards of effective performance.
166.
Managers can adopt various methods to overcome initial resistance to change. In which of the following methods of overcoming resistance to change, management neutralizes potential or actual resistance by exchanging something of value for cooperation?
(a)
Facilitation and support
(b)
Manipulation
(c)
Negotiation and agreement
(d)
Explicit and implicit coercion
(e)
Education and communication.
167.
Douglas McGregor identified two opposing perspectives (Theory X and Theory Y) that he believed typified managerial views of employees and suggested that management must start with the basic question of how managers see themselves in relation to others. Which of the following is not true about his theory?
(a)
Theory X managers view people as having an inherent dislike of work
(b)
Theory X managers assume that people do not want to be directed
(c)
Theory Y managers assume that the average person will accept, even seek, responsibility
(d)
Theory Y managers view people as responsible and conscientious
(e)
Theory Y managers assume that people are internally motivated to accomplish the goals and objectives.
168.
The manager of Master Products Ltd., a leading manufacturer of electrical components, instructed Tarun, Shreya, Aparna, and Sheila, who all worked together, to teach each other their job skills to be more effective. What is this called?
(a)
Cross-training
(b)
Role perception
(c)
Training
(d)
Simulation
(e)
Apprenticeship.
169.
Senthil is a salesperson for Cloud 9 Corporation's Chennai office. If the salespersons meet their sales goals for the month, they are given an all-expense-paid trip to a Salgaonkar Club football game. Football is not one of Chennai's favorite sports, and the Salgaonkar Club is definitely not Senthil's favorite team. Which component of Vroom’s expectancy theory influences Senthil’s performance?
(a)
Effort-performance linkage
(b)
Performance-reward linkage
(c)
Effort-reward linkage
(d)
Valence
(e)
Instrumentality.
170.
Which of the following statements is/are true with respect to content theories of motivation?
I.     Maslow’s self-actualization and esteem needs correspond to Herzberg’s motivators.
II.     McClelland’s need for achievement corresponds to Alderfer’s relatedness needs.
III.    Maslow’s esteem needs correspond to Alderfer’s need for power.
IV.   Herzberg’s hygiene factors correspond to McClelland’s need for affiliation, Maslow’s social needs and Alderfer’s existence needs.
(a)
Only (I) above
(b)
Both (I) and (III) above  
(c)
Both (II) and (IV) above
(d)
(II), (III) and (IV) above
(e)
All (I), (II), (III) and (IV) above.

Answers

161.
Answer : (b)
Reason : A type of departmentalisation in which similar specialists and people with common skills, knowledge and orientations are grouped together, is referred to as Functional departmentalisation.
Hence, from above discussion, we can infer that option (b) is correct.
162.
Answer : (e)
Reason : If unity of command were to be applied without exception, functional authority would be exercised only by line managers. Hence, option (e) is incorrect and is the answer.
163.
Answer : (d)
Reason : Organization Chart is a vital tool for providing information about organizational relationships.
It shows authority relationships and neglects significant informal and informational relationships
Hence from above discussion, we can infer that option (d) is false with respect to Organization Chart.
Options (a), (b), (c) and (e) are all true with respect to Organization Chart.
164.
Answer : (c)
Reason : Performance Test or Work Sampling Test is used as a means of measuring practical ability on a specific job. The applicant completes some job activity under structured conditions.
Hence from above discussion, we can infer that option (c) is correct.
165.
Answer : (b)
Reason : Performance appraisal involves the formal evaluation of an individual's job performance.
Emphasizing the evaluator's impression of the individual's work habits is least likely to improve the effectiveness of the appraisal process.
Hence, from above discussion, we can infer that option (b) is correct.
166.
Answer : (c)
Reason : In negotiation and agreement method of overcoming resistance to change, management neutralizes potential or actual resistance by exchanging something of value for cooperation.
Hence, from above discussion, we can infer that option (c) is correct.
167.
Answer : (b)
Reason : As per McGregor, Theory X managers assume that people prefer to be directed, wish to avoid responsibility, have little ambition, and above all, want security.
Hence, from above discussion, we can infer that option (b) is not correct about his theory.
Options (a), (c), (d) and (e) are all correct about his theory.
168.
Answer :  (a)  
Reason : Tarun, Shreya, Aparna and Sheila all worked together, and to be more effective they taught each other their job skills. This process is called job rotation or cross-training. This is defined as a job design approach that involves periodically shifting workers through a set of jobs in a planned sequence. (b) Role perception is the individual’s understanding of the behavior needed to accomplish a task or perform a job. (c) Training is the systematic development of knowledge, skills and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given job or a task. (d) Simulation is a quantitative planning technique that uses mathematical models to imitate reality. (e) Apprenticeship is providing training in basic skills and impart knowledge in specified trades to apprentices in order to improve opportunities for employment or to help them promote their own business.
169.
Answer : (d)
Reason : Senthil’s performance is influenced by the component of valence.
170.
Answer : (b)
Reason : The following statements are true with respect to content theories of motivation:
I.     Maslow’s self-actualization and esteem needs correspond to Herzberg’s motivators.
III.    Maslow’s esteem needs correspond to Alderfer’s need for power.
              The following statements are not true with respect to content theories of motivation:
II.     McClelland’s need for achievement corresponds to Alderfer’s relatedness needs. Since, McClelland’s need for achievement corresponds to Alderfer’s growth needs.
IV.   Herzber’s hygiene factors correspond to McClelland’s need for affiliation, Maslow’s social needs and Alderfer’s existence needs since Herzber’s hygiene factors correspond to Maslow’s safety and physiological needs and Alderfer’s existence needs.

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